Turkey is a vast peninsula, covering an area of 814, 578 square kilometres or 314, 510 square miles and linking Asia to Europe through the Sea of Marmara and the Straits of Istanbul and Canakkale.
Turkey is a country being Northern Hemisphere and also in the place where Asia, Europe and Africa continents are closed up most. One part of the country is in Anatolian peninsula, the other part is in Thrace which is a prolongation of the Balkans peninsula. Three sides of the country enclosed with Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Marmara Sea and Aegean Sea. And it has straits connecting Black sea and Mediterranean.
Turkey is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north.
Separating Anatolia and Thrace are the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits (the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles), which are commonly reckoned to delineate the boundary between Europe and Asia, thereby making Turkey a country of significant geostrategic importance. The predominant religion in Turkey is Islam and its official language is Turkish.
The Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey in the eleventh century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert. Several small beyliks and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol Empire's invasion. Starting from the thirteenth century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies. A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatürk as its first president. The Turkish Republic has now been a member of the international community for over 80 years.
Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms.
Turkish Grand National Assembly is the owner of founder governance Turkish Republic.
• The Turkish Republic has now been a member of the international community for over 80 years. During this period, great changes have occurred and many difficulties have been encountered.
• But the country remains firmly attached to the policies initiated by Ataturk. He has established a democratic multi-party political system, developed a vibrant civil society, and embarked on the path of industrialisation and market economy.
• It has consolidated its ties with the west and with the European Union through membership in NATO and the Council of Europe and Customs Union.
• Turkey is the member of many international organizations.
• Turkey has started to negatiations for full associateship to European Union since 3rd October 2005.
• Turkey is a regional power for political scientists and economists.
• As the country surrounded by seas on 3 sides, Turkey has 159 islands most of which are not even known or inhabited. 109 of these islands are in the Aegean Sea, 26 in the Mediterranean, 23 in the Marmara Sea with only one in the Black Sea.
• The official language of the country, Turkish is spoken by 220 million people and is the world's 5th most widely used language.
• Turkey is the only secular country in Islamic world. Although 99% of the population is Muslim, religion is seen as strictly a private matter in Turkey.
• Like other European countries, the weekly holiday is Sunday - not Friday as many are mistaken- and the Gregorian calendar is used in Turkey.
• Hospitality is a cornerstone of Turkish culture, and Turks believe that visitors should be treated as “Guests sent by God”.
• Turkish cuisine is renowned as one of the world's best.